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This page is dedicated to room acoustical parameters for concert halls. Sound examples with corresponding values are presented on the akuTEK demo page Reverberant Space.

Parameters

Table 1. Parameters suggested as international standard, e.g. ISO 3382-1

 

Reverberation time (RT) is an important global parameter describing the overall acoustical properties of a hall, even if it in the ISO 3382 is not associated with any of the five listener-specific aspects (Table 1). It can be shown that statistically, EDT, G, C and LG are dependent of RT, source-receiver distance and hall volume.

Rehearsal room acoustics for the orchestra musician (paper), and presentation by M Skålevik 04.06.2014

Rooms for music – Acoustical needs and requirements , by J H Rindel 04.06.2014

M Skålevik: Concert hall preference prediction—uncertainties from using a selection of data (slides presentation) (full paper)

M Skålevik: Room Acoustical Parameters in predictions of concert hall preference  - about uncertainties, explanation and understanding

M Skålevik: Can concert hall preference be predicted with physical quantities?

R Lacatis: Historical and chronological evolution of the concert hall acoustics parameters

Concert Hall Parameters 2012—Status Report  published  23.04.2012

Music Room Acoustics - Critical parameters  published  23.04.2012

Concert Hall Parameters and concert hall preference IOA Dublin 2011 poster

Concert Hall Parameters - We still haven’t found what we’re looking for IOA Dublin 2011 paper

Room acoustical parameters at listeners’ ears—can preferred concert hall acoustics be predicted and explained?  (ICA 2010 preprint) by M Skålevik

Reverberation Time—the mother of all room acoustical parameters (BNAM 2010 paper) (presentation)

J Bradley: Using ISO 3382 measures, and their extensions, to evaluate acoustical conditions in concert halls

M Barron: Using the standard on objective measures for concert auditoria, ISO 3382, to give reliable results

L Beranek: “Subjective rank-orderings and measurements of 58 concert halls”

L Beranek: “Concert Hall Acoustics 2008” or from other source “Concert Hall Acoustics 2008” 

Mike Barron reports that subjective level of sound (loudness) relates to distance. Paper. Presentation

Sound Strength in Small Halls by J Hyde and H Möller

M Skålevik:  Presentation of the paper Room acoustic parameters - distribution over the concert hall seating area.
M Barron:
Presentation of the paper Objective assessment of concert hall acoustics.

Behaviour of lateral energy in small concert halls by H Möller and J Hyde (2007)

Reverberation can be visualized with the Audio Camera. External link: Visualizing Concert Hall Reverberation

A Buen: Early Design Criteria for Multipurpose Cultural Houses (paper) (presentation)

Bradley: Evolution of newer auditorium acoustics parameters

Spaciousness, ASW, ENV/LEV/LE, LF and 1-iacc

Spaciousness discussion (ASW, LE, LF, 1-iacc)

Typical values of LF and 1-IACC in famous concert halls

Bradley: Comparison of concert hall measurements of spatial impression

De Vries: Spatial fluctuations in measures for spaciousness

Jeon: Effect of sound strength and IACC on perception of listener envelopment in concert hall

Griesinger: Objective measures of spaciousness and envelopment

Beranek: Lateral Fraction and Binaural Quality Index (discussion Concert halls 2008, sect 2 and 3)

Baalman (Thesis): Spaciousness in concert halls. Perceptibility of IACC-differences

 

Concert hall data

Concert hall data with subjective ratings and objective score based on a given set of parameter criteria are presented in Table 2. T is measured occupied, mid-frequency reverberation time. Rank is subjective rank-orderings. V, H/W and W is volume, height-to-with ratio and width respectively. r avr is the average source-receiver distance, estimated from geometrical data (length, width and stage depth) .

Database is Beranek’s book (2004). EDT, G, G125 , Glate , and C are TVr-predictors, calculated from T, V and r, based on Barron Revised Theory.

The score of a hall is simply the number of parameters fulfilling the target values on top of the table divided by 8 , i.e. the total number of parameters applied in the evaluation. The qualifying criteria-interval is a resuly from an iterative process aiming for the highest possible correlation between subjective data (Rank) and objective data (Score), actually r=0.82 and r2=0.67.

Values in red are higher than the criteria maximum, while values in blue are lower than the criteria minimum.

The data below is an extension of the work presented here www.akutek.info/Presentations/MS_Preference_Prediction_Pres.pdf. In the latest revision, G target is raised by 0.4dB while  Glate is no longer in the criteria group. G125 is replaced with the low-frequency balance parameter G125 -G. Correlation maintained. Scores changed. Medium size top ranked halls reach up to 100%, while some smaller top ranked halls score a bit lower than before. Latest publications are: Concert hall preference prediction—uncertainties from using a selection of data (paper), and Presentation (ISRA 2013 ).

In further work, the effect of using more than these 7 parameters in the evaluation will be tested.

Online concert hall acoustics rating survey Online concert hall acoustics rating

 Do you agree or disagree with Rank or score in Table 2 below? Give your vote online.


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Subjective listener aspect

Acoustic quality

Single number frequency averaging (Hz)

Just Noticeable Difference (JND)

Typical range*

Subjective level of sound

Sound Strength, G, in dB

500 to 1000

1 dB

-2 dB; +10 dB

Perceived reverberance

Early Decay Time, EDT, in s

500 to 1000

Rel. 5%

1.0s; 3.0s

Perceived clarity of sound

Clarity, C80, in dB
Definition, D
50
Centre Time, T
s, in ms

500 to 1000
500 to 1000
500 to 1000

1dB
0.05
10ms

-5 dB; +5 dB
0.3; 0.7
60 ms; 260 ms

Apparent Source Width, ASW

Early Lateral Energy Fraction LF or LFC

125 to 1000

0.05

0.05; 0.35

Listeners Envelopement

Late Lateral Sound Level, LG** in dB

125 to 1000

Not known

-14 dB; +1 dB

Ensemble conditions***

Early Support, STEarly (dB)

250 to 2000

Not known

-24 dB; -8dB

Perceived reverberance***

Late Support, STLate (dB)

250 to 2000

Not known

-24dB; -10dB

* Typical range is for averaged values in single positions in auditorium of non-occupied concert– and multi-purpose halls up to 25000 m3 .


** Current AKUTEK research use G
late instead og LG to describe Listeners Envelopment, agreeing with Beranek’s conclusion (2008): ” It must be concluded that total late energy is a better component of LEV than late lateral energy. This finding is confirmed in the study by Soulodre et al.” (Section 8 in Concert Hall Acoustics 2008)

*** Performers listener aspect, on orchestra platform. See also
Stage Acoustics.

 

Table 2

Rank

V

N

ravr

LF

1-iacce

ITDG

T

EDT

G

G125
- G

C

H/W

W

Glate

Score

Criteria maximum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1

2,2

5,4

3,0

1,0

1.1

18

 

 

Criteria minimum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.9

1.8

3,4

1,0

-1,0

0,80

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vienna Grosser Musikverinsaal

1

15000

1680

29

0,17

0,64

12

2,0

2,0

4

2

-1

0,9

20

1

100 %

Berlin Konzerthaus (Shauspielhaus)

4

15000

1575

25

 

0,66

25

2,0

1,9

4

2

-1

0,9

21

2

100 %

Tokyo Opera City, Concert Hall

6

15300

1636

30

 

0,66

15

2,0

1,9

4

0

-1

1,1

20

1

86 %

Boston Symphony Hall

2

18750

2625

32

0,22

0,65

15

1,9

1,9

2

0

0

0,8

23

-1

71 %

Amsterdam Concertgebouw

5

18780

2037

29

0,18

0,55

21

2,0

1,9

3

1

-1

0,6

28

0

71 %

Baltimore, Meyerhoff Symphony Hall

20

21530

2467

34

 

 

 

2,0

2,0

2

2

-1

0,6

29

-1

71 %

Buenos Airos, Teatro Colon

3

21524

2487

31

 

0,65

21

1,6

1,6

1

2

1

1,1

24

-3

57 %

Zurich Grosser Tonhalsaal

7

11400

1546

28

 

0,64

14

2,1

2,0

5

3

-1

0,7

20

3

57 %

New York Carnegie Hall

8

24270

2804

31

 

 

 

1,8

1,7

1

1

0

0,9

26

-2

57 %

Basel Stadt Casino

9

10500

1448

25

 

0,64

16

1,8

1,7

5

2

0

0,7

21

2

57 %

Cardiff, St Davis Hall

10

22000

1952

29

0,17

0,62

25

2,0

1,9

2

-1

0

0,7

27

-1

57 %

Dallas, Meyerson Symphony Center

11

23900

2065

30

 

 

21

2,8

1,9

4

1

-3

1,0

26

2

57 %

Lenox, MA, Seiji Ozawa Hall

13

11610

1180

28

 

 

23

1,7

1,6

4

2

0

0,7

21

1

57 %

Tokyo, Suntory Hall

17

21000

2006

31

 

0,52

30

2,0

1,9

2

1

-1

0,5

31

-1

57 %

Tokyo, Orchard Hall

30

20500

2150

33

 

0,53

 

1,8

1,8

2

1

0

0,9

24

-1

57 %

Salt Lake City, Symphony Hall

15

19500

2812

34

 

0,59

30

1,7

1,6

1

1

0

0,6

29

-2

43 %

Berlin Philharmonie

16

21000

2218

34

 

0,46

21

1,9

1,8

2

1

0

0,3

43

-1

43 %

Tokyo, Bunka Kaikan (Ueno)

18

17300

2327

31

 

0,59

27

1,5

1,5

1

2

1

0,7

27

-2

43 %

Brussels, Palais des Beaux-Arts

19

12520

2150

29

 

 

 

1,6

1,6

3

2

0

1,3

23

0

43 %

Chicago, Orchestra Hall

30

27000

2530

26

0,16

 

 

1,7

1,6

1

1

1

1,2

22

-2

43 %

Cleveland, Severance Hall

30

16290

2101

32

 

 

27

1,6

1,6

2

2

1

0,6

27

-2

43 %

Gothenburg Concert House

30

11900

1286

29

 

0,55

 

1,6

1,6

3

2

0

0,5

25

0

43 %

Jerusalem, Binyanei Ha'Onnoh

30

24700

3142

34

 

 

35

1,8

1,7

0

2

0

0,4

31

-3

43 %

Kyoto Concert Hall

30

20000

1840

34

0,13

 

29

2,0

1,9

2

1

-1

0,4

35

-1

43 %

Leipzig, Gewandhaus

30

21000

1900

34

 

0,56

 

2,0

2,0

2

-1

-1

0,6

36

-1

43 %

 

Rank

V

N

ravr

LF

1-iacce

ITDG

T

EDT

G

G125
- G

C

H/W

W

Glate

Score

Lenox, Tanglewood Music Shed

30

42480

5121

49

 

 

 

1,9

1,8

-3

5

0

0,2

61

-6

43 %

Rotterdam De Doelen

30

24070

2242

32

0,15

 

35

2,1

2,0

2

0

-1

0,4

32

-1

43 %

Tokyo, Metropolitan Art Space

30

25000

2017

32

 

0,55

26

2,2

2,1

2

1

-1

0,6

28

-1

43 %

Toronto, Roy Thompson Hall

30

24500

2613

30

 

 

 

1,8

1,7

1

1

0

0,7

31

-2

43 %

Vienna Konzerthaus

30

16600

1865

30

 

 

 

1,9

1,8

3

3

0

0,5

28

0

43 %

Washington, DC, JFK Concert Hall

30

22300

2448

33

 

 

 

1,7

1,7

1

1

0

0,6

28

-2

43 %

Edinburgh, Usher Hall

44

15700

2502

30

 

 

33

1,8

1,7

3

2

0

0,7

24

0

43 %

San Fransisco, Davies Hall

54

24070

2743

31

 

 

25

1,9

1,8

1

2

0

0,7

28

-2

43 %

Costa Mesa, Segerstrøm Hall

14

27800

2903

37

0,23

 

31

1,6

1,5

-1

3

1

0,6

42

-5

29 %

Christchurch, Town Hall

30

20500

2662

30

 

0,59

 

2,3

2,3

3

0

-2

0,6

29

1

29 %

Munich, Philharmonie Am Gasteig

30

29700

2487

42

0,16

0,59

20

1,8

1,7

-1

2

0

0,3

51

-4

29 %

Osaka, Symphony Hall

30

17800

1702

31

 

0,53

 

1,8

1,7

2

1

0

0,7

32

-1

29 %

New York, Avery Fisher Hall

42

20400

2742

33

 

 

 

1,8

1,7

1

0

0

0,6

26

-2

29 %

Glasgow, Royal Concert Hall

45

22700

2457

31

0,23

 

 

1,8

1,7

1

2

0

0,6

33

-2

29 %

Liverpool, Philharmonic Hall

47

13560

1803

30

 

 

25

1,5

1,5

2

1

1

0,5

30

-1

29 %

Montreal, Salle Wilifrid-Pelletier

51

26500

2982

35

0,12

 

20

1,7

1,6

0

2

1

0,7

33

-4

29 %

Tokyo, NHK Hall

52

25200

3677

34

 

 

 

1,7

1,6

0

2

0

0,4

33

-3

29 %

Bonn Beethovenhalle

30

15730

1407

35

0,15

 

 

1,7

1,6

2

0

0

0,3

37

-1

14 %

Salzburg. Festspielhaus

40

15500

2158

32

0,16

0,44

27

1,5

1,5

1

1

1

0,4

33

-2

14 %

Stuttgart. Liederhalle Grosser Saal

41

16000

2000

38

0,13

 

29

1,7

1,6

1

0

0

0,4

36

-2

14 %

Copenhagen Radiohuset Studio 1

43

11900

1081

28

0,16

 

29

1,5

1,5

3

1

1

0,5

34

-1

14 %

Paris, Salle Pleyel

49

15500

2386

30

0,16

 

35

1,5

1,4

2

5

1

0,7

26

-2

14 %

Sydney Opera House Concert Hall

53

24600

2696

32

 

 

 

2,2

2,1

2

0

-1

0,5

33

0

14 %

Tel Aviv, Frederic Mann Auditorium

55

21240

2715

29

 

 

30

1,5

1,4

0

1

1

0,5

24

-3

14 %

London, Barbican Concert Hall

56

17750

2026

33

0,16

 

27

1,7

1,6

2

0

0

0,4

39

-2

14 %

London Royal Festival Hall

46

21950

2901

34

0,17

 

34

1,5

1,4

-1

0

1

0,5

32

-4

0 %

Buffalo Kleinhans Music Hall

57

18240

2839

35

0,1

0,41

32

1,5

1,4

0

3

1

0,3

39

-3

0 %

London Royal, Albert Hall

58

86650

5222

42

0,14

 

 

2,4

2,3

-3

1

-1

0,8

47

-6

0 %

 

Rank

V

N

ravr

LF

1-iacce

ITDG

T

EDT

G

G125
- G

C

H/W

W

Glate

Score

Valencia, Paleu de la Musica

 

15400

1790

18

 

 

 

2,1

2,0

5

2

-1

0,8

21

2

100 %

Lucerne, Cultural Ctr. Concert Hall

 

18000

1892

23

 

 

 

2,1

2,0

4

0

-1

1,1

22

1

86 %

Manchester Bridgewater Hall

 

25000

2357

25

 

 

 

2,0

1,9

2

2

0

0,9

26

-1

86 %

Taipei Cultural Centre, Concert Hall

 

16700

2074

26

 

 

 

2,0

2,0

4

1

-1

0,7

27

1

86 %

Baden-Baden Festspielhaus

 

20100

2300

25

 

 

 

1,9

1,8

3

1

0

0,7

30

0

71 %

Philadelphia, Verizon Hall, Kimmel Center

 

23520

2519

23

 

 

 

1,9

1,7

2

1

0

0,9

26

-1

71 %

Birmingham Symphony Hall

 

25000

2211

26

 

 

 

1,9

1,8

2

1

0

0,8

27

-1

57 %

Fort Worth, Bass Performance Hall

 

27300

2072

26

 

 

 

2,0

1,9

2

1

0

1,2

22

-1

57 %

Kuala Lumpur, DewanFil. Petronas

 

17860

850

21

 

 

 

1,8

1,7

3

2

0

0,7

23

0

57 %

Lahti, Sibelius/Talo

 

15500

1250

29

 

 

 

2,2

2,2

4

1

-1

0,8

23

2

57 %

Mexico City, Salla Nezahualcoyotl

 

30640

2376

31

 

 

 

2,0

1,9

1

2

0

0,4

41

-2

57 %

Munich, Herkulessalle

 

13590

1287

25

 

 

 

1,8

1,7

4

2

0

0,7

22

1

57 %

Odense, Koncerthus Nielsen Hall

 

14000

1320

25

 

 

 

1,8

1,8

4

1

0

0,5

28

1

57 %

Sao Paolo, Sala Sao Paulo

 

20000

1610

24

 

 

 

2,1

2,0

3

0

-1

0,8

23

1

57 %

Seattle, Benaroya Hall

 

19263

2500

27

 

 

 

2,0

1,9

3

1

-1

0,7

26

0

57 %

Worchester Mechanics Hall

 

10760

1343

22

 

 

 

1,6

1,5

4

2

1

0,5

25

1

57 %

Belfast, Waterfront Hall

 

30800

2250

26

 

 

 

2,2

2,1

2

0

-1

0,6

30

-1

43 %

Hong Kong, Cul. Ctr. Concert Hall

 

21250

2019

21

 

 

 

2,0

1,9

3

0

0

0,6

33

0

43 %

Madrid, Auditorio Nacional de Musica

 

20000

2293

27

 

 

 

1,7

1,7

2

2

0

0,7

28

-1

43 %

Minneapolis, Minn. Orchestra Hall

 

18975

2450

29

 

 

 

1,9

1,8

2

1

0

0,6

29

-1

43 %

Sapporo Concert Hall

 

28800

2008

23

 

 

 

1,8

1,7

1

1

1

0,7

31

-2

43 %

Shanghai, Grand Theatre

 

13000

1895

27

 

 

 

1,7

1,6

3

2

0

0,6

35

0

43 %

Tokyo, Dai-Ichi Seimei Hall

 

6800

767

20

 

 

 

1,6

1,5

7

1

1

0,6

20

3

43 %

Trondheim Olavshallen

 

13000

1200

25

 

 

 

1,8

1,7

4

0

0

0,7

26

1

43 %

Bayeruth Festspielhaus

 

10308

1800

28

 

 

 

1,7

1,6

4

0

0

0,4

33

1

29 %

Berlin Kammermusiksaal (Philharmonie)

 

11000

1138

29

 

 

 

1,8

1,8

5

1

0

0,2

49

2

29 %

Budapest, Patricia Hall

 

13400

1750

28

 

 

 

1,7

1,7

3

1

0

0,3

42

0

29 %

Tokyo, Hamarikyu Ashai Hall

 

5800

522

20

 

 

 

1,7

1,7

8

-1

0

0,8

15

5

29 %

Athens, Megaron Concert Hall

 

19100

1962

28

 

 

 

1,9

1,8

2

1

0

0,5

35

0

14 %

Denver Boettcher Hall

 

37444

2750

44

 

 

 

2,4

2,3

0

1

-2

0,2

53

-2

14 %

Rochester, NY, Eastman Theatre

 

25500

3347

30

 

 

 

1,7

1,6

0

4

1

0,6

37

-3

14 %

Aspen, Benedict Music tent

 

19830

2050

30

 

 

 

3,5

3,5

6

-1

-4

0,3

42

5

0 %

Caracas, Aula Magna

 

24920

2660

36

 

 

 

1,3

1,2

-2

5

3

0,3

58

-7

0 %